In this chapter, we share our experience of how to create and develop facilitative competencies and skills. Enabling internal people to facilitate change and transformation, with external facilitators as support. With this ‘train-the-facilitator’ approach, the organization builds its own facilitator competencies. Also, the role of a facilitator becomes well known in the organization and becomes utilised much more. Managers become better internal clients through greater awareness of the power of facilitation. They become better facilitative leaders themselves.
If you are involved in leading change that engages everyone in the organisation, then you will find out in this chapter how facilitation can help. If you’re an internal facilitator helping your organization with a change process, there will be tips and insights for you too.
As facilitators, with over 25 years of organisational change and transformation experience, we want to share our reflections and learnings with you. We will do this by describing how we have facilitated successful change and transformation in three different organizations, using facilitators and leaders internal to the organizations and discussing why we think that led to sustained and positive outcomes.
We are sharing three different real life examples of how internal facilitators and leaders could bring about change and transformation in their respective organisations. The first example comes from the manufacturing industry. Here the organization adopted Lean Manufacturing. Internal facilitators made it easy for Lean methods and tools to make a difference in factories worldwide.
The second example comes from an insurance company, where digitalization prompted new ways of working. This required new views on leadership and ‘co-workership’, capability to collaborate with one another. The aim of this project was to shift to a transformed culture. Here, facilitative leadership played an important role in modelling the way and making it happen.
The third example comes from the public sector. We share how internal facilitators enabled a merger between two hospitals. This has a special focus on how internal facilitators used solution-focused methods to bring out the best in two clinics to build one new one.
At the end, we will share some more reflections around how to train and develop internal facilitators—some do’s and don’ts, and our tips for success. We kindly ask the reader to keep in mind that this is ‘our good practice’, rather than saying that this is ‘the best practice’. Yet, using this approach has made our facilitation practice one of the biggest players in the market.
When it comes to facilitating change, there will be some good “take-aways” in the readings ahead. We have made the three examples anonymous due to confidentiality agreements. Yet, everything you read contains authentic examples from real life. One thing that you will find in common across all examples is that it starts with a cry for help from a client.
Example #1: Business Excellence in a Global Manufacturing Industry
“We are going through massive change,” the CEO said. “Everything will change! Everything!”
We looked at the man sitting opposite the massive desk at the headquarters office in Gothenburg, Sweden. He looked excited, almost upbeat, and still a bit anxious. His colleagues from the leadership team, present in the room, looked a little bit more anxious than upbeat.
“Mr. Johnson,” said Trevor, “say some more about the needs you see. And why you have invited us to this meeting.”
“I only have one issue with this change, well, this transformation. How is it going to happen? To draw on paper what to change, squares and lines and even dotted lines, that is easy. But to make it happen in real life, during a short period of time and leaving a positive memory in the organization, that is tricky. I need people who can help to make this easy! Or at least easier! That’s why you are here! We’ve embarked on so many initiatives: TQM, Continuous Improvement, 6-Sigma, you name it. They have all come and gone and left a little mark but have not sustained. This time, it needs to be different.”
Mr. Johnson was spot-on. The tricky thing is that usually, the question is never one of ‘What to change?’. Instead, it is ‘How to make it happen?’ How to sustain it in a way that leaves positive memories in the organization, making the next transformation even easier. Leaving a positive legacy for future generations of change is key.
What he was aiming for was a transformation. To shift 130 factories worldwide to adopt one single manufacturing approach based on Lean principles. This was not the first time the organization tried to change their ways of working to ensure there were more effective work processes. Several attempts at similar change, including 6 Sigma, Kaizen, TQM, etc, were all more or less successful but not sustained.
This was the first time the organization decided to embark on a change of this nature with internal resources—facilitators who would train other facilitators to enable change. A systematic, self-organised approach that turned out to be a successful way of working in a vast, rather sceptical organization. With a team of around 100 internal facilitators from all around the world, trained to support this transformation.
We based the work on a few, but important, principles:
Find what works and do more of it…
We noticed, early on, that what seemed to work in this organization was the natural spread of ideas, much like a virus spreads through the body, or how memes on the Internet go viral. The question was: how can we make this a great idea? Something that creates curiosity in the minds of the global site managers rather than a big ‘tsunami’ roll-out approach, which was the norm for many attempts before? An opportunity came along at a large conference held in Asia with all managers. Rather than announce this as a roll-out, this time it was as an experiment. Furthermore, it was only possible for a handful of sites to join in. They would all get supported with facilitators. This idea of scarcity, or limiting the extent of the programme, seemed to result in a desire to be a part of the first wave… always a good start.
Think self-organising change!
Two great thinkers in the field of emergent change have influenced much of our work, Ralph Stacey and Ed Olson, authors of Facilitating Organisational Changeiv. One of the principles of Ed Olson’s work is that it is possible to influence the change landscape from control to self-organising to chaos.
Making it too big would result in us having a chaotic change on our hands.
We needed to find a way to make sure we didn’t descend into chaos where everyone took a different approach. And neither create something that wouldn’t flourish. In natural systems if there is too much control, the living organism tends to struggle. Yet in the ‘self-organising’ space, according to complexity thinkers, this is where novelty, innovation and vibrant change can occur. So, it’s important not to control the way in which change happens either, even though we all tend to have a desire for agreement and certainty.
The answer came in deciding the size of the first application of facilitation. Trying to control the change by making it too small wouldn’t create the interest needed. Making it too big would result in us having a chaotic change on our hands.
We decided to establish a handful of practice grounds where we test new ways of working. Where it is OK to be innovative, to test, to fail and to learn. That meant that all the tools the facilitators used were “something we could use in the future”. This sounds more like emergent, self-organising language. The alternative would be to describe it as “this is our new way of working”. This sounds like control and would have caused more resistance.
The facilitators introduced a tool, tested it in a collaborative manner with the teams, and asked for feedback. Adjusting the tools in collaboration with the factory teams became an important part of the journey.
External consultants are like chillies
Of course, consultants can bring that added new knowledge that can “spice” up the way in which an organization thinks and acts. Use too many though, and the situation can become overwhelming and doesn’t seem to leave a good taste.
Our advice is that external consultants (including ourselves) add value where the expertise can fulfil a strong need. In this case, we were two consultancies collaborating around the client’s needs. One company was training all managers and internal facilitators in Lean principles and tools. And then us, bringing expertise of how to engage and train internal facilitators in interventions and methods. By using the skill sets from each independent company, the client got the best of both worlds. And since the set-up was collaborative, there was never any competition between the consultancies. Rather, there was a will to learn as much as possible from each other. And to leave the client with all the capabilities to lead this change themselves—now, and in the future.
Bootcamps really work…and they are tough too!
The facilitators’ training took place in Bootcamps. These were profound and intense training experiences of four workshops lasting a full week. Each camp had 24 participants from all over the world. What the nominated participants had in common was a huge interest in making change happen. The Bootcamp consisted of four weeks of training. This was a real investment, both from the organization and from the facilitators themselves. This investment ensures the learning is thorough and not a quick fix. This is one of the reasons it is still referred to as one of the most successful transformations ever made in this company.
During the Bootcamp, the facilitators learnt about:
- Lean manufacturing, similar to the approach used by Toyota
- Facilitation and facilitator competencies
- How to work with their internal clients (that is, the local factory lead team)
- How to handle resistance
- How to inspire change
- How to train others in basic facilitation skills so the machine could grow itself—to ensure the process continued being emergent and self-organising.
During the Bootcamp, the facilitators also formed very strong connections with each other. This made it much easier for them to share learning, and support each other, during the change. Each Bootcamp group became like a “cell”. This cell continued working like a ‘wirearchy’ — a connected web of people with common interests. This is very different to the traditional hierarchical structures found in organizations.
Using the ‘wirearchy’ – a connected web of people with
In total there were four separate Bootcamp groups, each with 24 facilitators. When later groups started their learning journey, the previous groups had already made great progress. They could share best practice with their new facilitator colleagues. The “cells” communicated with each other and became a very important support structure to make the change happen.
The facilitators learnt how to contract with internal clients, the factory managers. This was a very important element in what made this transformation successful. This is a key competency among the IAF Facilitators. For those reading this chapter who are internal facilitators, we urge you to develop this key skill. Many problems that we have seen emerge in a change process are due to poor or unclear contracting with the client. Take care to do this thoroughly before commencing work with the wider group.
Each factory manager felt that they had their “own” team of facilitators when it was their turn to start working on Lean. Speaking their language and being very aware of the challenges that specific factory was facing was extremely valuable. The facilitators trained the leadership teams in how to model the way with facilitative tools. They facilitated the first rounds of improvement activities with great success. The success spread from the “practice grounds” in the chosen factories. As a result, new factories started to work with their internal team of facilitators.
The methods and principles of Lean spread like a virus in a body. And so did the experiences the facilitators gathered from the different teams they worked with. In total, the facilitators supported the factories, their leadership teams and at the workplaces, for around two years. Many of the factories continued to use the facilitators for new projects.
Being an internal facilitator soon became an established role in the company. And being a facilitative leader became a standard for good leadership. ‘Manufacturing Excellence’ had become so successful that it was soon renamed ‘Business Excellence’. It had seeped into marketing and finance functions too, and now has the name of the The Company Name Way. The icing on the cake is that several of the facilitators continue to attend IAF conferences. In fact, one has become an IAF Certified™ Professional Facilitator (CPF) in her own right.
And what about Mr. Johnson? When we spoke to him a few years later, he said, “This is the most successful transformation our company has ever managed to make! We have real buy-in from all factories worldwide. Our internal resources and facilitators are making it happen. We have expertise from external facilitators and consultants to ensure we are not making too many mistakes. We have leaders who can facilitate change, not just manage it. They make the change “stick”. And we have a new role in our company
— The Facilitator!”
We have leaders who can facilitate change, not just manage it. They make the change “stick”.
Example #2: Facilitation to Change Culture in a Digital World
“Why is it so difficult for managers to transfer what they have learnt at leadership development programmes back to the workplace?” Managers went to an off-site to develop change management skills before leading a major transformation. There was a lack of noticeable change in behaviour, creating frustration.
The insurance company Carina worked for was facing massive change. Digitalization is the name given to a range of technology solutions that change the way an organization functions. These include innovations such as artificial intelligence (AI), advanced analytics and voice recognition. Incorporating these into the company’s web-based application was the plan. This digitalization had already made a huge impact on how the employees interacted with clients. Carina remained convinced there was more to come.
Sending managers to off-site Leading Change programme seemed relevant at the time. But they struggled in leading change and transformation when they got back. They became lost in the urgency of day to day demands.
“We should send all employees on this programme together with their managers,” Carina said. “That way they would develop together. And most of the challenges in the transformation we face could get fixed in an atmosphere of mutual learning, whereas now we have leaders coming back and planning and executing change without their teams’ input, in a unilateral way. Yes, let’s do it! We’ll create a learning environment where we all go through change together. We’ll learn and develop at the same time. We need to work out how this will affect an organization the size of ours, that’s 3,000 people!”
The idea of a team having a rich dialogue without the notion of “boss” and “subordinate” is an impactful way of working
Most organizations spend a lot of time developing capabilities in change for managers and project leaders. Often sending them on programmes “away” from their daily work. And away from the people they later will (hopefully) involve in change. We started to ask ourselves: Would it not be better to develop leadership skills for facilitating change with co-workers in the same room, so the time from learning about facilitating change to changing things becomes much shorter and easier? In other words, training leaders to be facilitators with their own teams in bringing about change in the workplace.
We have tried this approach in many different organizations and, for many, it is a revolutionary way of thinking and working. To have the employees present in the room where leadership development and change planning is happening. The idea of a team having a rich dialogue without the notion of “boss” and “subordinate” is an impactful way of working. Medarbetarskap is the name given to this in Sweden. The literal meaning is “work-with-ship” as opposed to leadership…where everyone develops.
This example comes from a large insurance company. The company had defined four important areas for leaders and employees to develop skills and capabilities—to be able to handle the change and transformation they, as individuals and the company, were facing:
- Leading myself. How to be accountable in my daily job. What would I do if this was my own business, with special focus on handling ambiguity in change?
- Leading and working in teams. How to collaborate with others when delivering results, even if team constellations might change.
- Leading the business. How to focus on clients and business needs. An entrepreneurial mind-set even if we go through internal change.
- Developing the business. How to find new and better ways of working and to continuously improve.
For each area, we created a dialogue guide with exercises and tools aimed at challenging the current ways of being. Exploring and working on new and better ways. These would help people reflect on how they were being both as a team and as individuals, including the leader of course. The leaders experienced training in:
- how to use a facilitative leadership style;
- how to use different tools and methods;
- how to be able to facilitate dialogues in their teams;
- how to inspire action;
- exploring what ‘resistance’ to change really is and how to overcome it;
- how to create a safe environment for sharing and learning in the team; and,
- how to use each of the five dialogue guides.
At the workplace, they arranged a series of dialogue meetings. At least four took place, one for each area. Each meeting took approximately two hours. Many teams worked much more with the dialogue guides, using the exercises several times.
It was inspiring to see how both leaders and team members enjoyed having the time to sit down together and discuss how they could develop. Both as the leader of the team, and as team members in the team. They were using the tools to plan and prepare for change in their teams and also as reflective methods during the more challenging parts of change. For example, when they were shifting from one IT system to another, which caused a lot of frustration in teams. The tools were also used when it became known that some jobs were going to disappear when people retired.
The dialogue guides have the same design as a cookery book, with many different dishes to choose from within each area. Take, for example, the dialogue guide for the “Leading Myself ” session. Here, we used a lot of transparency exercises to build trust and understanding for each individual in the team. An example of a specific exercise is the “Line of Life”. The teams discussed what had made them the people they are today. Sharing things like values, important role models, ambitions they had and ambitions they have for the future, etc.
Other tools included more typical facilitation methods. For example, Force-field Analysis to figure out the current versus the ideal way of working in the future, and to determine driving and hindering forces in change. Also, the Ease and Impact Grid to prioritise activities and actions ahead; De Bono’s 6 Thinking Hats to reflect on learnings, as well as Icebreakers and Energisers to inject energy into the teams when needed.
One important element of each guide is the checklist provided to the leaders (Table 1). This ensures they will get the most from each session. This kind of preparation gives many important messages to those participating. For example, “This is important. Your participation is vital. I, the leader, care…this matters!”
The beauty of this way of working is that the managers develop into facilitative leaders. They learn how to lead change together with their team members in a mutual learning context.
This is important. Your participation is vital. I, the leader, care…this matters!
The guidelines showing how to use the tools were very extensive. As a result, the leaders felt safe and competent when applying different methods. The co-workers enjoyed the facilitated sessions. One employee said, “It helped me go through this transformation. I’m not sure I would have coped without these sessions. It was hard going to work some days, especially when we knew we were going to get negative messages around outsourcing and similar things. Yet knowing that we were all in this together and we got the sessions available to structure as well as debrief the change, helped me. I got a much better manager after the sessions, and I became a much better, co-creating employee afterwards.”
Carina was particularly delighted as it meant the changes became embedded in the daily work patterns. Regular, short scheduled meetings replaced costly and complex off-site interventions. To use facilitation to change a culture is not a quick fix. It needs a lot of interventions over time, which requires patience and persistence. The leadership team needs to sponsor the facilitation. It’s also important to move beyond facilitation being the domain of external consultants. Instead, facilitation becomes used all the time in everyday meetings run by the team leadership or the meeting leader.
But what about staying neutral, you might think. And what about staying focused on the process more than the content? Of course, there were some managers who were uncomfortable at first. But with a light touch from an internal or external facilitator at the first meeting, most leaders wanted to take the rest themselves.
The facilitator is ‘multi-partial’ on everybody’s side
One question that often emerges in this kind of setting is: Can managers stay neutral and step out of a “normal” decision-making role? We make a clear distinction between the facilitator, who is multi-partial (on everybody’s side), and the leader using facilitative skills. The latter has a dual role. First, in ensuring a good process and second, engaging in the content somewhat. In our experience, leaders are usually very good at stepping in and out of roles. And when the co-workers/employees become comfortable with facilitation, they also help with role clarification. “Are you in a manager role now? Or are you facilitating this discussion? What process will we use for decision-making in this meeting?” We often hear these questions from team members who have experienced good facilitation. They know the difference clear and concise communication can make. This approach creates arenas for mutual learning. Arenas where inclusiveness and collaboration is in play for real. This is where we see the huge impact facilitation has in organizations, with both leaders and co-workers alike. This is so much better than training leaders to be in unilateral control of change.
Example #3: How Facilitation Helped Two Clinics to Become One
“Our two hospitals are only 30 km apart, yet it seems like the distance between us is as if you were taking the whole way around the globe and back.” A political decision was made to merge the two hospitals into one. First because they were so close to each other. And second, from a medical perspective, they could provide better health care with larger clinics and more specialists.
The clinics, previously split in two physical locations, were now going to be working as one. The merger had huge implications. Not only on the medical processes and procedures but also on staff. Now there was a need to commute between two locations. Another implication was the quite different cultures in the two hospitals. This could not be underestimated or overlooked. “How on earth can we get our two clinics to work as one,” the director of Intensive Care, Per, said. “Even if our staff understands that this is better from a medical perspective, it’s still a challenge to make this happen.”
The Intensive Care Unit in one of the hospitals was larger. The staff coming from the smaller unit felt like their ways of working would be “eaten up” by the larger of the two even though they had more experience in advanced trauma care. “The mind-set in the larger clinic right now is that they will ‘take over’ the staff from the smaller one. And that the smaller one will close, which is not true,” Per said. “In fact, we will focus on becoming ONE clinic, with one part specialising in trauma and emergency care and the other specialising in elective and planned care. This is not about shutting down one. This is about shutting down both clinics as they operate today and rebuilding one new clinic that can deliver intensive care according to our new mission. And at the same time giving a value proposition to our community members. But how can we make it happen? I need your help!”
The hospital knew of facilitation, having experienced positive results in the past. Internal and external facilitators had supported single workshops as well as longer processes at the hospital. The focus of the workshops was knowledge sharing and enabling collaboration among teams.
So when two important clinics need to merge into one, both the Hospital Director and the Director for Intensive Care asked for facilitation support. They understood that facilitation would be vital in making the merge happen in a way that was inclusive and collaborative.
The WHAT was already decided—make two clinics one. But the HOW could be planned and executed in many different ways. With previous positive experience and good results from facilitation, the management team at the hospital decided to invest in an internal team of facilitators. They would support the whole change process from start to finish. A process that would take around three years to complete.
The internal facilitator training explored how to use and intervene with solution-oriented methods. These would focus on strengths, what was working in both clinics and how to grow and make more of that, rather than focusing on what was wrong. Employees were invited to large group sessions in the early stages. The aim was to prepare for change in an inclusive and collaborative way. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) was used as a philosophy and method, which made it possible for all voices to be heard. An AI session usually starts with interviews in pairs with a fixed set of questions in the interview guide:
- Tell me about a situation where the clinic you work in was functioning well. What happened? Who was involved? Why was it such a positive experience?
- What core values or principles are guiding the work you do in your clinic?
- If you had a wish, how would you like to see our united clinic work in the future? What does the ‘Future Perfect’ look like?
The employees were interviewing each other, one from each clinic. Already at this first step, they were finding some common ground working together. Next, we asked three pairs to form groups of six people, and in these groups, they re-told the stories they captured during the interviews. The groups had two tasks. First, to capture the values or principles they seemed to have in common in the group. These were the themes emerging from question 2 in the interview guide. Then to visualise their Future Perfect when they were all working together as one successful clinic. This came with inspiration from question 3.
This process helped the employees from both clinics to see how much they had in common. To see that both clinics had strengths to contribute with and that their shared visions of the future were aligned. By this way of working, a natural curiosity occurred and replaced the doubt and fear that had existed earlier. After these initial sessions, task forces with participants from both clinics assembled. Their focus was working on different subjects, such as aligning medical processes and procedures, aligning work schedules, establishing practice grounds where knowledge sharing happened and working on the elements in the culture where they wanted to see a shift happen.
An invitation to take part in task forces or work groups went to all employees. Also, trained internal facilitators got into action using different methods and processes.
It would never have been possible to achieve this merger and transform the way the clinics were working without the facilitation support and doctors. Yet because of the professionalism of the facilitators, and the fact that they were also coming from the same organization, it created a sense of “we are all in this together”.
In total, we trained around 30 facilitators who supported all the different clinics at the hospital. They were people with an interest in facilitation and background as nurses, doctors and from more administrative roles. For three intensive years, they provided facilitation support to the organization. They were highly appreciated too. When we interviewed the Director for the hospital and the Director for the Intensive Care Unit, both said it would never have been possible to achieve this merger and transform the way the clinics were working without the facilitation support. They both admitted that it can be challenging to work with very specialized and professional groups like nurses
Reflections and Tips
Sometimes we are asked by colleagues working as external facilitators: “Why do you train so many internal facilitators? Would it not be more lucrative for you to do more of the work yourself, as external resources to these organisations?” Well, for us, the ambition has always been to spread the power of facilitation. Then you need to find ways of “scaling” what you do.
If every year you train 30 internal facilitators in 10 organizations, we have 300 people using facilitation and helping organizations to deliver even better results. If then, in the 10 organizations, you train 100 managers to use facilitative leadership in times of change, then we have 1,000 facilitative leaders. If each leader uses facilitative skills with their team of 10 people, we have enabled more collaborative and inclusive ways of working for around 10,000 people…and that is the power of facilitation!
Remember the well-known proverb: “Give a man a fish and feed him for a day, show him how to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” This is an abundance mind-set that we choose to operate from in all our work. An abundance mindset is the alternative to a scarcity mindset. You can choose to either view the world as abundant or scarce, but they cannot co-exist. The abundance mind-set flows out of a deep inner sense of personal worth and security. It is a paradigm that is grounded in the belief that there is more than enough for everyone.
As a single consultant, or a “one-man-band”, it’s more difficult to reach so many, at least in a short time. Of course, you can make great impact, going deep and doing profound work with smaller groups. And it can be extremely rewarding for you as a facilitator. But if you want to “scale up” your work, you either have to find colleagues to network with or develop internal resources that do the bulk of the facilitation work themselves. In all our cases, the organizations have become totally independent of us. That, for us, is very rewarding.
The networking dimension when developing internal facilitators is very important. By doing facilitator training together with internal colleagues, you build a great community for sharing best practice—and for sharing difficulties and helping each other in more challenging assignments.
Being an internal facilitator has drawbacks compared with being external. For example, some might question the lack of examples from other organizations. And if you “fail” with assignments, it can be tricky to recover your reputation as a skilled facilitator. So, we spend time on helping the clients we work with to set up the infrastructure to ensure facilitators network and support each other. We do the same for leaders too. This is done in many ways—through quick Skype calls every month, by offering “booster sessions” topping up skills and inspiring to action. Or by using peer assist or coaching pairs where pairs of facilitators can support and challenge each other. In many of the organizations we work with, the networks of facilitators reach out to other networks in other organizations. This way, the learning and success sharing continues beyond the boundaries of the organization.
In Sweden, for 12 years we have arranged the annual conference “Faciliteringsdagarna” (Facilitation Days). This promotes facilitation, and creates a place for learning, sharing and networking between facilitators, networks of facilitators and facilitative leaders. This conference usually attracts between 100–150 facilitators, many of them internal. All see it as a great opportunity to network with others. Many leaders and clients also attend and contribute with their perspective on how facilitation is making a difference in their organizations and what results it creates.
Bringing it together
These three real-life examples show how clients with complex challenges, in quite different settings, can be helped with the power of facilitation. Whether it’s in the guise of facilitative leadership, facilitation skills or adopting the role of the facilitator, what they have in common is the belief that real and lasting change can only be achieved by engaging those involved in it.
We have been working in the field of facilitation and organisational change for many years. During that time, it has become obvious to us that what works in one organization doesn’t necessarily apply to another. After all, organizations come in many shapes and sizes. With that in mind, remember there may be unique clues in any organization of what works. These will help facilitation of change and transformation succeed.
We are passionate about building communities of internal facilitators. And we have found that building that same passion and capability with internal facilitators takes time and effort. Furthermore, giving the facilitators freedom to act in helping teams requires that commitment too.
The same applies to leaders who are seeking to create a culture shift through facilitative dialogue. It’s essential that time and effort is dedicated for real change to occur. And the results can be astonishing.
Change comes about one conversation at a time. Organizations become world-class one person at a time. So whilst leaders becoming more facilitative in their approach isn’t a quick fix, the impact over time can be enormous.
Finally, there is one thing that has been the ultimate driving force for us over the years. It has been to see the results that internal facilitators can help their teams achieve for years to come. As Margaret Mead almost said, “Never doubt that a group of thoughtful committed facilitators can bring about sustainable change; indeed, from our experience, it’s the only thing that ever has.”
Olson, E. E., & Eoyang, G. H. (2001). Facilitating Organization Change: Lessons from Complexity Science (1st ed.). Pfeiffer